Descriptive texts are a type of text that describes something, be it an object, person, animal, place, event, whose intention is to transmit to the reader the impressions and qualities of something.
In other words, descriptive texts capture impressions in a way that represents the making of a portrait, like a photograph described through words.
For this, some aspects are of utmost importance for the preparation of this type of texts, from the physical and/or psychological characteristics that are intended to be analyzed to knowing color, texture, height, length, weight, dimensions, function, climate, time, vegetation, location, sensation, among others.
General characteristics Descriptive Texts:
- verbal portrait
- Absence of action and prior or posterior relationship between sentences
- Predominance of nouns, adjectives and adjective phrases
- Using enumerations and comparisons
- Presence of copulative verbs
- Verbs in the present or past tense
- Use of juxtaposed coordinated sentences
Descriptive texts are characterized by describing something or someone in detail, giving the reader the possibility of creating a mental image of the object in accordance with the description made. This description includes both the most important and characteristic aspects that generalize an object or being, as well as the details and details that differentiate them from others.
It is not a type of autonomous text, being present in other texts, such as narrative text . Descriptive passages occur in the middle of the narrative when there is a pause in the development of events to characterize an object, a place or a person in detail, being a useful and important resource to capture the reader’s attention.
Structure of descriptive texts
Introduction: in this part the being or object that will be described is identified, so that the reader pays attention to that being or object.
Knot or Development: in this part the being or object is described in depth, presenting its most general and most detailed aspects, with more objective and subjective characterizations.
Conclusion: in this last part the description is concluded, which is when the characterization of the object or being ends.
Characteristics of Descriptive Text
The descriptive text is not limited by temporal notions or spatial relationships, and describes something static without a fixed order for the elaboration of the description. There is a notable predominance of nouns, adjectives and adjective phrases, verbs, the use of state verbs being mostly necessary, such as being, being, seeming, staying, staying, continuing, turning, walking,…
The use of clear and dynamic language, with rich and varied vocabulary, as well as the use of enumerations and comparisons, or other figures of language, serve to better present the object or being, enriching the text and making it more interesting for the reader. .
The description can be more objective, focusing on physical aspects, or more subjective, taking into account emotional and psychological aspects. There is a balance between the two types of description, presenting the object or being in its various aspects.
In the description of people there is the description of physical aspects, that is, those that can be observed and the description of psychological and behavioral aspects, such as character, personality, humor, etc., learned by living with the person or by observing their attitudes.
In the description of places, both the description of physical aspects and the description of the social, economic, political, etc. environment occur. In the description of objects, although the description of physical aspects predominates, there may also be a sensory description that stimulates the reader’s senses.
Although it is possible to distinguish the types of description, it is essential that all three types are present in a description, so as to make it complete, rich and interesting.
- Exact and precise description of the object or being
- Closest possible approximation of reality
- Free of opinions and double meanings
- Description of physical aspects
- Use of denotative language
- Description that makes the text more truthful
- Provides a personal appearance to the object or being described
- Transmission of a mood and sentimental state
- Description of emotional aspects
- Use of symbolic and metaphorical language
- Use of connotative language
- Description that makes the text more interesting
Sensory description (provokes sensations in the reader, exploring various senses)
Visual sensations: red skirt, huge hands, cloth with flowers, small towel.
Auditory sensations: noisy children, quiet house, deafening noise, loud grinding.
Taste sensations: bitter response, delicious cake, sweet and sour taste, salty sea.
Olfactory sensations: nauseating odor, pleasant aroma, foul and pestilential odor, perfumed clothing.
Tactile sensations: hard and rough floor, soft silk, cold skin, rough fabric.